author        = {Erich Wenger and Michael Hutter},
  title         = {A Hardware Processor Supporting Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Less Than 9kGEs},
  booktitle     = {Smart Card Research and Advanced Application Conference - CARDIS 2011, 10th Conference, September 15-16, 2011, Leuven, Belgium, Proceedings},
  year          = {2011},
  editor        = {Emmanuel Prouff},
  volume        = {7079},
  series        = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  pages         = {182--198},
  publisher     = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  doi           = {10.1007/978-3-642-27257-8_12},
  keywords      = {Low-Resource Hardware Implementation, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Binary Extension Field, Embedded Systems}, 
  abstract      = {Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based processors have gained large attention in the context of embedded-system design due to their ability of efficient implementation. In this paper, we present a low-resource processor that supports ECC operations for less than 9\,kGEs. We base our design on an optimized 16-bit microcontroller that provides high flexibility and scalability for various applications. The design allows the use of an optimized RAM-macro block and reduces the complexity by sharing various resources of the controller and the datapath. Our results improves the state of the art in low-resource $\mathbb{F}_{2^{163}}$ ECC implementations (14\,\% less area needed compared to the best solution reported). The total size of the processor is 8,958\,GEs for a $0.13\,\mu$m CMOS technology and needs 285\,kcycles for a point multiplication. It shows that the proposed solution is well suitable for low-power designs by providing a power consumption of only $3.2\,\mu$W at 100\,kHz.},