author        = {Michael Hutter and Martin Feldhofer and Thomas Plos},
  title         = {An ECDSA Processor for RFID Authentication},
  booktitle     = {Workshop on RFID Security -- RFIDsec 2010, 6th Workshop, Istanbul, Turkey, June 7-9},
  year          = {2010},
  editor        = {Siddika Berna Ors Yalcin},
  volume        = {6370},
  series        = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  pages         = {189--202},
  publisher     = {Springer},
  doi           = {10.1007/978-3-642-16822-2_16},
  keywords      = {Radio-Frequency Identification, VLSI Design, Elliptic Curves, ECDSA, Authentication, Digital Signatures},
  url           = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/a763713131487822/},
  abstract      = {In the last few years, a lot of research has been made to bring asymmetric cryptography on low-cost RFID tags. Many of the proposed implementations include elliptic-curve based coprocessors to provide entity-authentication services through for example identification schemes. This paper presents first results of an 192-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) processor that allows both entity and also message authentication by digitally signing challenges from a reader. The proposed architecture enhances the state-of-the-art in designing a lowresource ECDSA-enabled RFID hardware implementation. A tiny microcontroller is integrated to provide protocol scalability and re-use of common algorithms. The proposed processor signs a message within 859 188 clock cycles (127 ms at 6.78 MHz) and has a total chip size of 19 115 gate equivalents.}